DECISION AND ORDER
This case is decided pursuant to Chapter 410 of the Texas Workers’ Compensation Act and Rules of the Division of Workers’ Compensation adopted thereunder.
A contested case hearing was held on August 4, 2011 to decide the following disputed issue:
- Is the preponderance of the evidence contrary to the decision of the IRO that the claimant is not entitled to left shoulder arthroscopic subacromial decompression, AC joint resection and possible rotator cuff repair for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury)?
Petitioner/Claimant appeared and was assisted by TT, ombudsman. Respondent/Carrier appeared and was represented by TS, attorney.
The claimant sustained a compensable injury to the left shoulder. Dr. E requested the claimant undergo the disputed procedures. Utilization review agent, Dr. U, a board certified orthopedic surgeon, reviewed the necessity of the requested procedures as assigned by (Healthcare Provider). Dr. U attempted peer to peer contact with Dr. E and requested physical therapy notes be sent to him, but was unsuccessful. Upon appeal of the denial for the requested procedure, Dr. T, an orthopedic surgeon, was assigned to review the necessity of the requested procedures. Dr. T made two unsuccessful attempts to contact Dr. E and requested that he provide additional documentation regarding conservative treatment the claimant may have undergone. Documentation again was not provided. After review of the available records, both Dr. U and Dr. T concluded that insufficient clinical information was provided to objectively support what conservative treatment may have been undertaken and what those results may have been. Upon appeal of these denials, (Independent Review Organization), an IRO, assigned a board certified orthopedic surgeon to review the requested procedure. In its decision the IRO noted that the ODG requires that positive findings for impingement upon examination and temporary relief of pain with anesthetic injection should be documented when surgery for impingement syndrome is requested. In the case at hand, the IRO reasoned that because impingement signs were insufficiently documented and there was a lack of documentation regarding temporary relief with anesthetic injection, the requested procedures were not found to be medically necessary.
Texas Labor Code Section 408.021 provides that an employee who sustains a compensable injury is entitled to all health care reasonably required by the nature of the injury as and when needed. Health care reasonably required is further defined in Texas Labor Code Section 401.011 (22a) as health care that is clinically appropriate and considered effective for the injured employee's injury and provided in accordance with best practices consistent with evidence based medicine or, if evidence based medicine is not available, then generally accepted standards of medical practice recognized in the medical community. Health care under the Texas Workers' Compensation system must be consistent with evidence based medicine if that evidence is available. Evidence based medicine is further defined in Texas Labor Code Section 401.011 (18a) to be the use of the current best quality scientific and medical evidence formulated from credible scientific studies, including peer-reviewed medical literature and other current scientifically based texts and treatment and practice guidelines in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The Commissioner of the Division of Workers' Compensation is required to adopt treatment guidelines that are evidence-based, scientifically valid, outcome-focused and designed to reduce excessive or inappropriate medical care while safeguarding necessary medical care. Texas Labor Code Section 413.011(e). Medical services consistent with the medical policies and fee guidelines adopted by the commissioner are presumed reasonable in accordance with Texas Labor Code Section 413.017(1).
In accordance with the above statutory guidance, the Division of Workers' Compensation has adopted treatment guidelines by Division Rule 137.100. This rule directs health care providers to provide treatment in accordance with the current edition of the ODG, and such treatment is presumed to be health care reasonably required as defined in the Texas Labor Code. Thus, the focus of any health care dispute starts with the health care set out in the ODG. Also, in accordance with Division Rule 133.308 (t), "A decision issued by an IRO is not considered an agency decision and neither the Department nor the Division are (sic) considered parties to an appeal. In a Contested Case Hearing (CCH), the party appealing the IRO decision has the burden of overcoming the decision issued by an IRO by a preponderance of evidence-based medical evidence."
Regarding diagnostic arthroscopy, the ODG provides as follows:
Definition: An arthroscope is a tool like a camera that allows the physician to see the inside of a joint, and the surgeon is sometimes able to perform surgery through an arthroscope, which makes recovery faster and easier. For the Shoulder, see Surgery and Diagnostic arthroscopy.
Recommended as indicated below. Criteria for diagnostic arthroscopy (shoulder arthroscopy for diagnostic purposes): Most orthopedic surgeons can generally determine the diagnosis through examination and imaging studies alone. Diagnostic arthroscopy should be limited to cases where imaging is inconclusive and acute pain or functional limitation continues despite conservative care. Shoulder arthroscopy should be performed in the outpatient setting. If a rotator cuff tear is shown to be present following a diagnostic arthroscopy, follow the guidelines for either a full or partial thickness rotator cuff tear. (Washington, 2002) (de Jager, 2004) (Kaplan, 2004)
For average hospital LOS if criteria are met, see Hospital length of stay (LOS).
Recommended as indicated below. Surgery for impingement syndrome is usually arthroscopic decompression (acromioplasty). However, this procedure is not indicated for patients with mild symptoms or those who have no limitations of activities. Conservative care, including cortisone injections, should be carried out for at least three to six months prior to considering surgery. Since this diagnosis is on a continuum with other rotator cuff conditions, including rotator cuff syndrome and rotator cuff tendonitis, see also Surgery for rotator cuff repair. (Prochazka, 2001) (Ejnisman-Cochrane, 2004) (Grant, 2004) Arthroscopic subacromial decompression does not appear to change the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. (Gartsman, 2004) This systematic review comparing arthroscopic versus open acromioplasty, using data from four Level I and one Level II randomized controlled trials, could not find appreciable differences between arthroscopic and open surgery, in all measures, including pain, UCLA shoulder scores, range of motion, strength, the time required to perform surgery, and return to work. (Barfield, 2007) Operative treatment, including isolated distal clavicle resection or subacromial decompression (with or without rotator cuff repair), may be considered in the treatment of patients whose condition does not improve after 6 months of conservative therapy or of patients younger than 60 years with debilitating symptoms that impair function. The results of conservative treatment vary, ongoing or worsening symptoms being reported by 30-40% patients at follow-up. Patients with more severe symptoms, longer duration of symptoms, and a hook-shaped acromion tend to have worse results than do other patients. (Hambly, 2007) A prospective randomised study compared the results of arthroscopic subacromial bursectomy alone with debridement of the subacromial bursa followed by acromioplasty in patients suffering from primary subacromial impingement without a rupture of the rotator cuff who had failed previous conservative treatment. At a mean follow-up of 2.5 years both bursectomy and acromioplasty gave good clinical results, and no statistically significant differences were found between the two treatments. The authors concluded that primary subacromial impingement syndrome is largely an intrinsic degenerative condition rather than an extrinsic mechanical disorder. (Henkus, 2009) A recent RCT concluded that arthroscopic acromioplasty provides no clinically important effects over a structured and supervised exercise program alone in terms of subjective outcome or cost-effectiveness when measured at 24 months, and that structured exercise treatment should be the basis for treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome, with operative treatment offered judiciously. (Ketola, 2009)
Criteria for anterior acromioplasty with diagnosis of acromial impingement syndrome (80% of these patients will get better without surgery.)
- Conservative Care: Recommend 3 to 6 months: Three months is adequate if treatment has been continuous, six months if treatment has been intermittent. Treatment must be directed toward gaining full ROM, which requires both stretching and strengthening to balance the musculature. PLUS
- Subjective Clinical Findings: Pain with active arc motion 90 to 130 degrees. AND Pain at night. PLUS
- Objective Clinical Findings: Weak or absent abduction; may also demonstrate atrophy. AND Tenderness over rotator cuff or anterior acromial area. AND Positive impingement sign and temporary relief of pain with anesthetic injection (diagnostic injection test). PLUS
- Imaging Clinical Findings: Conventional x-rays, AP, and true lateral or axillary view. AND Gadolinium MRI, ultrasound, or arthrogram shows positive evidence of impingement. (Washington, 2002)
Dr. E neither provided testimony nor did he provide a written opinion as to the necessity of the requested procedures at the medical contested case hearing. The IRO rendered its determination based upon what documentation was provided. A review of the evidence reflects that the claimant has provided insufficient documentation to show that he meets the ODG criteria of objective clinical findings regarding impingement syndrome and the criteria regarding conservative care. The claimant failed to show that he met the ODG criteria and he failed to present other evidence-based medical evidence sufficient to overcome the IRO’s determination that he is not entitled to the requested procedures.
Even though all the evidence presented was not discussed, it was considered. The Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law are based on all of the evidence presented.
FINDINGS OF FACT
- The parties stipulated to the following facts:
- Venue is proper in the (City) Field Office of the Texas Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensation.
- On (Date of Injury), Claimant was the employee of (Employer), Employer and sustained a compensable injury.
- On (Date of Injury), Employer provided workers’ compensation insurance coverage with Arch Insurance Company.
- The IRO determined that the requested services were not reasonable and necessary health care services for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).
2.Carrier delivered to Claimant a single document stating the true corporate name of Carrier, and the name and street address of Carrier’s registered agent, which document was admitted into evidence as Hearing Officer’s Exhibit Number 2.
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
- The Texas Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensation, has jurisdiction to hear this case.
- Venue is proper in the (City) Field Office.
- The preponderance of the evidence is not contrary to the decision of the IRO that left shoulder arthroscopic subacromial decompression, AC joint resection and possible rotator cuff repair is not health care reasonably required for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).
Claimant is not entitled to left shoulder arthroscopic subacromial decompression, AC joint resection and possible rotator cuff repair for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).
Carrier is not liable for the benefits at issue in this hearing. Claimant remains entitled to medical benefits for the compensable injury in accordance with §408.021.
The true corporate name of the insurance carrier is ARCH INSURANCE COMPANY and the name and address of its registered agent for service of process is
CT CORPORATION SYSTEM
350 NORTH ST. PAUL STREET
DALLAS, TEXAS 75201
Signed this 5th day of August, 2011.