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March 1, 2015


March 1, 2015


This case is decided pursuant to Chapter 410 of the Texas Workers’ Compensation Act and the Rules of the Texas Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensation. For the reasons discussed herein, the Hearing Officer determines that the preponderance of the evidence is not contrary to the decision of the IRO that Claimant is not entitled to OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).


On February 17, 2015, Jacqueline Harrison, a Division hearing officer, held a contested case hearing to decide the following disputed issue:

  1. Is the preponderance of the evidence contrary to the decision of the Independent Review Organization (IRO) that the Claimant is not entitled to an OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury)?

The record remained open following the February 17, 2015, contested case hearing [CCH] so that OA LLP, could be properly listed as a Subclaimant or appear as a witness on behalf of the Claimant. However, OA LLP did not file the proper documentation or appear as a witness at the CCH. Therefore, the record was closed on February 27, 2015, and this decision was issued.


Petitioner/Claimant appeared and was assisted by PB, ombudsman. Respondent/Carrier appeared and was represented by BJ, attorney.


Evidence presented in the hearing revealed that Claimant sustained a compensable injury on (Date of Injury). Claimant testified that he had received steroid injections in 2009, and 2010, and on May 20, 2013, he underwent a lumbar laminectomy with discectomy. Claimant stated that shortly thereafter he began to experience low back pain. Claimant testified that medications and physical therapy have not relieved his pain. Claimant’s treating physician, AS, M.D., submitted a request for OP Left L4-5 Transforaminal ESI 64483 64484 77003 which resulted in a denial dated July 21, 2014.

Texas Labor Code Section 408.021 provides that an employee who sustains a compensable injury is entitled to all health care reasonably required by the nature of the injury as and when needed. Health care reasonably required is further defined in Texas Labor Code Section 401.011 (22a) as health care that is clinically appropriate and considered effective for the injured employee's injury and provided in accordance with best practices consistent with evidence based medicine or, if evidence based medicine is not available, then generally accepted standards of medical practice recognized in the medical community. Health care under the Texas Workers' Compensation system must be consistent with evidence based medicine if that evidence is available. Evidence based medicine is further defined in Texas Labor Code Section 401.011 (18a) to be the use of the current best quality scientific and medical evidence formulated from credible scientific studies, including peer-reviewed medical literature and other current scientifically based texts and treatment and practice guidelines. The Commissioner of the Division of Workers' Compensation is required to adopt treatment guidelines that are evidence-based, scientifically valid, outcome-focused, and designed to reduce excessive or inappropriate medical care while safeguarding necessary medical care. Texas Labor Code Section 413.011(e). Medical services consistent with the medical policies and fee guidelines adopted by the commissioner are presumed reasonable in accordance with Texas Labor Code Section 413.017(1).

In accordance with the above statutory guidance, the Division of Workers' Compensation has adopted treatment guidelines by Division Rule 137.100. This rule directs health care providers to provide treatment in accordance with the current edition of the Official Disability Guidelines (ODG), and such treatment is presumed to be health care reasonably required as defined in the Texas Labor Code. Thus, the focus of any health care dispute starts with the health care set out in the ODG. Also, in accordance with Division Rule 133.308(s), "A decision issued by an IRO is not considered an agency decision and neither the Department nor the Division is considered parties to an appeal. In a Contested Case Hearing (CCH), the party appealing the IRO decision has the burden of overcoming the decision issued by an IRO by a preponderance of evidence-based medical evidence."

The pertinent provisions of the ODG applicable to this case are as follows, to wit:

Recommended as a possible option for short-term treatment of radicular pain (defined as pain in dermatomal distribution with corroborative findings of radiculopathy) with use in conjunction with active rehab efforts. See specific criteria for use below. Radiculopathy symptoms are generally due to herniated nucleus pulpous or spinal stenosis, although ESIs have not been found to be as beneficial a treatment for the latter condition.

Short-term symptoms: The American Academy of Neurology recently concluded that epidural steroid injections may lead to an improvement in radicular pain between 2 and 6 weeks following the injection, but they do not affect impairment of function or the need for surgery and do not provide long-term pain relief beyond 3 months. (Armon, 2007) Epidural steroid injection can offer short-term pain relief and use should be in conjunction with other rehab efforts, including continuing a home exercise program. There is little information on improved function or return to work. There is no high-level evidence to support the use of epidural injections of steroids, local anesthetics, and/or opioids as a treatment for acute low back pain without radiculopathy. (Benzon, 1986) (ISIS, 1999) (DePalma, 2005) (Molloy, 2005) (Wilson-MacDonald, 2005) This recent RCT concluded that both ESIs and PT seem to be effective for lumbar spinal stenosis for up to 6 months. Both ESI and PT groups demonstrated significant improvement in pain and functional parameters compared to control and no significant difference was noted between the 2 treatment groups at 6 months, but the ESI group was significantly more improved at the 2nd week. (Koc, 2009)

Use for chronic pain: Chronic duration of symptoms (> 6 months) has also been found to decrease success rates with a threefold decrease found in patients with symptom duration > 24 months. The ideal time of either when to initiate treatment or when treatment is no longer thought to be effective has not been determined. (Hopwood, 1993) (Cyteval, 2006) Indications for repeating ESIs in patients with chronic pain at a level previously injected (> 24 months) include a symptom-free interval or indication of a new clinical presentation at the level.

Transforaminal approach: Some groups suggest that there may be a preference for a transforaminal approach as the technique allows for delivery of medication at the target tissue site, and an advantage for transforaminal injections in herniated nucleus pulposus over translaminar or caudal injections has been suggested in the best available studies. (Riew, 2000) (Vad, 2002) (Young, 2007) This approach may be particularly helpful in patients with large disc herniations, foraminal stenosis, and lateral disc herniations. (Colorado, 2001) (ICSI, 2004) (McLain, 2005) (Wilson-MacDonald, 2005)

Fluoroscopic guidance: Fluoroscopic guidance with use of contrast is recommended for all approaches as needle misplacement may be a cause of treatment failure. (Manchikanti, 1999) (Colorado, 2001) (ICSI, 2004) (Molloy, 2005) (Young, 2007)

Factors that decrease success: Decreased success rates have been found in patients who are unemployed due to pain, who smoke, have had previous back surgery, have pain that is not decreased by medication, and/or evidence of substance abuse, disability or litigation. (Jamison, 1991) (Abram, 1999) Research reporting effectiveness of ESIs in the past has been contradictory, but these discrepancies are felt to have been, in part, secondary to numerous methodological flaws in the early studies, including the lack of imaging and contrast administration. Success rates also may depend on the technical skill of the interventionalist. (Carette, 1997) (Bigos, 1999) (Rozenberg, 1999) (Botwin, 2002) (Manchikanti , 2003) (CMS, 2004) (Delport, 2004) (Khot, 2004) (Buttermann, 2004) (Buttermann2, 2004) (Samanta, 2004) (Cigna, 2004) (Benzon, 2005) (Dashfield, 2005) (Arden, 2005) (Price, 2005) (Resnick, 2005) (Abdi, 2007) (Boswell, 2007) Also see Epidural steroid injections, “series of three” and Epidural steroid injections, diagnostic. ESIs may be helpful with radicular symptoms not responsive to 2 to 6 weeks of conservative therapy. (Kinkade, 2007) Epidural steroid injections are an option for short-term pain relief of persistent radiculopathy, although not for nonspecific low back pain or spinal stenosis. (Chou, 2008) As noted above, injections are recommended if they can facilitate a return to functionality (via activity & exercise). If post-injection physical therapy visits are required for instruction in these active self-performed exercise programs, these visits should be included within the overall recommendations under Physical therapy, or at least not require more than 2 additional visits to reinforce the home exercise program.

With discectomy: Epidural steroid administration during lumbar discectomy may reduce early neurologic impairment, pain, and convalescence and enhance recovery without increasing risks of complications. (Rasmussen, 2008)

An updated Cochrane review of injection therapies (ESIs, facets, trigger points) for low back pain concluded that there is no strong evidence for or against the use of any type of injection therapy, but it cannot be ruled out that specific subgroups of patients may respond to a specific type of injection therapy. (Staal-Cochrane, 2009) Recent studies document a 629% increase in expenditures for ESIs, without demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes or disability rates. (Deyo, 2009) There is fair evidence that epidural steroid injection is moderately effective for short-term (but not long-term) symptom relief. (Chou3, 2009)

Note: The purpose of ESI is to reduce pain and inflammation, thereby facilitating progress in more active treatment programs, and avoiding surgery, but this treatment alone offers no significant long-term functional benefit.

  1. Radiculopathy must be documented. Objective findings on examination need to be present. For unequivocal evidence of radiculopathy, see AMA Guides, 5th Edition, page 382-383. (Andersson, 2000)
  2. Initially unresponsive to conservative treatment (exercises, physical methods, NSAIDs and muscle relaxants).
  3. Injections should be performed using fluoroscopy (live x-ray) and injection of contrast for guidance.
  4. Diagnostic Phase: At the time of initial use of an ESI (formally referred to as the “diagnostic phase” as initial injections indicate whether success will be obtained with this treatment intervention), a maximum of one to two injections should be performed. A repeat block is not recommended if there is inadequate response to the first block (< 30% is a standard placebo response). A second block is also not indicated if the first block is accurately placed unless: (a) there is a question of the pain generator; (b) there was possibility of inaccurate placement; or (c) there is evidence of multilevel pathology. In these cases a different level or approach might be proposed. There should be an interval of at least one to two weeks between injections.
  5. No more than two nerve root levels should be injected using transforaminal blocks.
  6. No more than one interlaminar level should be injected at one session.
  7. Therapeutic phase: If after the initial block/blocks are given (see “Diagnostic Phase” above) and found to produce pain relief of at least 50-70% pain relief for at least 6-8 weeks, additional blocks may be required. This is generally referred to as the “therapeutic phase.” Indications for repeat blocks include acute exacerbation of pain, or new onset of symptoms. The general consensus recommendation is for no more than 4 blocks per region per year. (CMS, 2004) (Boswell, 2007)
  8. Repeat injections should be based on continued objective documented pain relief, decreased need for pain medications, and functional response.
  9. Current research does not support a routine use of a “series-of-three” injections in either the diagnostic or therapeutic phase. We recommend no more than 2 ESI injections for the initial phase and rarely more than 2 for therapeutic treatment.
  10. It is currently not recommended to perform epidural blocks on the same day of treatment as facet blocks or sacroiliac blocks or lumbar sympathetic blocks or trigger point injections as this may lead to improper diagnosis or unnecessary treatment.
  11. Cervical and lumbar epidural steroid injection should not be performed on the same day. (Doing both injections on the same day could result in an excessive dose of steroids, which can be dangerous, and not worth the risk for a treatment that has no long-term benefit.)

Epidural steroid injections, “series of three”

Not recommended. Original recommendations that suggested a “series of three injections” generally did so prior to the advent of fluoroscopic guidance. These previous recommendations were based primarily on case studies and anecdotal evidence (Class IV and V data). (Abram, 1999) (Warr, 1972) (Hickey, 1987) There does not appear to be any evidence to support the current common practice of a series of injections. (Novak, 2008) Contemporary research studies with higher levels of evidence (including two controlled trials) have suggested that on average, two or less ESIs are required in patients with successful outcomes from the use of ESIs to treat disc related lumbar radiculopathy. (Lutz, 1998) (Vad, 2002) (Riew, 2000) While all of these latter studies have utilized repeat injections, there has been no evidence-based research to explain why this practice is required, or the mechanism for possible action. Since the introduction of fluoroscopically guided ESIs, it has been suggested that there is little evidence to repeat an accurately placed epidural injection in the presence of mono-radiculopathy, regardless of whether there is partial or no response. (McLain, 2005) A recent randomized controlled trial of blind ESIs found no evidence to support repeat injections, because at six weeks there was no significant difference found between the ESI group and a placebo controlled group in terms of any measured parameter. (Price, 2005) A repeat injection has been suggested if there is question of accurate dermatomal diagnosis, if pain may be secondary to a different generator, or in the case of multilevel pathology. (McLain, 2005) There is a lack of support for 2nd epidural steroid injection if the 1st is not effective. (Cuckler, 1985) With fluoroscopic guidance, there is little support to do a second epidural if there is no response to the first injection. There is little to no guidance in current literature to suggest the basis for the recommendation of a third ESI, and the routine use of this practice is not recommended.

Epidural steroid injections, diagnostic

Recommended as indicated below. Diagnostic epidural steroid transforaminal injections are also referred to as selective nerve root blocks, and they were originally developed as a diagnostic technique to determine the level of radicular pain. In studies evaluating the predictive value of selective nerve root blocks, only 5% of appropriate patients did not receive relief of pain with injections. No more than 2 levels of blocks should be performed on one day. The response to the local anesthetic is considered an important finding in determining nerve root pathology. (CMS, 2004) (Benzon, 2005) When used as a diagnostic technique a small volume of local is used (<1.0 ml) as greater volumes of injectate may spread to adjacent levels. When used for diagnostic purposes the following indications have been recommended:

  1. To determine the level of radicular pain, in cases where diagnostic imaging is ambiguous, including the examples below:
  2. To help to evaluate a pain generator when physical signs and symptoms differ from that found on imaging studies;
  3. To help to determine pain generators when there is evidence of multi-level nerve root compression;
  4. To help to determine pain generators when clinical findings are consistent with radiculopathy (e.g., dermatome distribution) but imaging studies are inconclusive.

The case was reviewed by a medical doctor, a Utilization Review Agent [URA] who upheld the denial of the OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI. The basis of the denial was that Claimant did not meet Official Disability Guidelines [ODG] criteria for the requested service. Specifically, the initial denial noted that although recent diagnostic evaluations had indicated positive findings, the current examination did not reflect objective neurologic deficits consistent with radiculopathy at the specified injection level. The URA noted that the Claimant had exhibited normal strength, reflexes and sensation in the lower extremities with negative straight leg test. Per the URA, given the lack of objective clinical findings to support the requested services, the medical necessity was not substantiated. The URA went further to note that the medical documentation submitted for review did not contain specific objective findings such as sensorimotor deficits and positive provocative tests to support the diagnosis of left L4-5 radiculopathy.

It was noted by independent review organization [IRO] reviewer that there was a lack of evidence that Claimant would be a participant in an active treatment program in conjunction with the requested service, as the requested service did not provide significant long-term functional benefit on its own. Thus, the requested epidural steroid injection was not medically necessary for the (Date of Injury), compensable injury.

Medical documentation and testimony were insufficient to establish that the medical treatment requested was health care reasonably required for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury). Therefore, the Petitioner has failed to meet his burden to overturn the decision of the IRO that he is not entitled to an OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).

The Hearing Officer considered all of the evidence admitted. The Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law are based on an assessment of all of the evidence whether or not the evidence is specifically discussed in this Decision and Order.


  1. The parties stipulated to the following facts:
    1. Venue is proper in the (City) Field Office of the Texas Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensation.
    2. On (Date of Injury), Claimant was the employee of (Employer), Employer.
    3. Claimant sustained a compensable injury on (Date of Injury).
    4. On (Date of Injury), Employer provided workers’ compensation insurance with Texas Mutual Insurance Company, Carrier.
  2. Carrier delivered to Claimant a single document stating the true corporate name of Carrier, and the name and street address of Carrier’s registered agent, which document was admitted into evidence as Hearing Officer’s Exhibit Number 2.
  3. An OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI is not health care reasonably required for treatment of the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).
  5. The Texas Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensation, has jurisdiction to hear this case.
  6. Venue is proper in the (City) Field Office.
  7. The preponderance of the evidence is not contrary to the decision of the IRO that OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI is not health care reasonably required for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).

Claimant is not entitled to an OP Left L4-5 transforaminal ESI for the compensable injury of (Date of Injury).


Carrier is not liable for the benefits at issue in this hearing. Claimant remains entitled to medical benefits for the compensable injury in accordance with §408.021.

The true corporate name of the insurance carrier is TEXAS MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY and the name and address of its registered agent for service of process is:




Signed this 1st day of March, 2015.

Jacqueline Harrison
Hearing Officer

End of Document